24h-payday

Archive for the ‘time’ Category

Kleen Products Predictive Coding Update – Judge Nolan: “I am a believer of principle 6 of Sedona”

Tuesday, June 5th, 2012

Recent transcripts reveal that 7th Circuit Magistrate Judge Nan Nolan has urged the parties in Kleen Products, LLC, et. al. v. Packaging Corporation of America, et. al. to focus on developing a mutually agreeable keyword search strategy for eDiscovery instead of debating whether other search and review methodologies would yield better results. This is big news for litigators and others in the electronic discovery space because many perceived Kleen Products as potentially putting keyword search technology on trial, compared to newer technology like predictive coding. Considering keyword search technology is still widely used in eDiscovery, a ruling by Judge Nolan requiring defendants to redo part of their production using technology other than keyword searches would sound alarm bells for many litigators.

The controversy surrounding Kleen Products relates both to Plaintiffs’ position, as well as the status of discovery in the case. Plaintiffs initially asked Judge Nolan to order Defendants to redo their previous productions and all future productions using alternative technology.  The request was surprising to many observers because some Defendants had already spent thousands of hours reviewing and producing in excess of one million documents. That number has since surpassed three million documents.  Among other things, Plaintiffs claim that if Defendants had used “Content Based Advanced Analytics” tools (a term they did not define) such as predictive coding technology, then their production would have been more thorough. Notably, Plaintiffs do not appear to point to any instances of specific documents missing from Defendants’ productions.

In response, Defendants countered that their use of keyword search technology and their eDiscovery methodology in general was extremely rigorous and thorough. More specifically, they highlight their use of advanced culling and analysis tools (such as domain filtering and email threading) in addition to keyword search tools.  Plaintiffs also claim they cooperated with Defendants by allowing them to participate in the selection of keywords used to search for relevant documents.  Perhaps going above and beyond the eDiscovery norm, the Defendants even instituted a detailed document sampling approach designed to measure the quality of their document productions.

Following two full days of expert witness testimony regarding the adequacy of Plaintiffs’ initial productions, Judge Nolan finally asked the parties to try and reach compromise on the “Boolean” keyword approach.  She apparently reasoned that having the parties work out a mutually agreeable approach based on what Defendants had already implemented was preferable to scheduling yet another full day of expert testimony — even though additional expert testimony is still an option.

In a nod to the Sedona Principles, she further explained her rationale on March 28, 2012, at the conclusion of the second day of testimony:

“the defendants had done a lot of work, the defendant under Sedona 6 has the right to pick the [eDiscovery] method. Now, we all know, every court in the country has used Boolean search, I mean, this is not like some freak thing that they [Defendants] picked out…”

Judge Nolan’s reliance on the Sedona Best Practices Recommendations & Principles for Addressing Electronic Document Production reveals how she would likely rule if Plaintiffs renew their position that Defendants should have used predictive coding or some other kind of technology in lieu of keyword searches. Sedona Principle 6 states that:

“[r]esponding parties are best situated to evaluate the procedures, methodologies, and technologies appropriate for preserving and producing their own electronically stored information.”

In other words, Judge Nolan confirmed that in her court, opposing parties typically may not dictate what technology solutions their opponents must use without some indication that the technology or process used failed to yield accurate results. Judge Nolan also observed that quality and accuracy are key guideposts regardless of the technology utilized during the eDiscovery process:

“what I was learning from the two days, and this is something no other court in the country has really done too, is how important it is to have quality search. I mean, if we want to use the term “quality” or “accurate,” but we all want this…– how do you verify the work that you have done already, is the way I put it.”

Although Plaintiffs have reserved their right to reintroduce their technology arguments, recent transcripts suggest that Defendants will not be required to use different technology. Plaintiffs continue to meet and confer with individual Defendants to agree on keyword searches, as well as the types of data sources that must be included in the collection. The parties and Judge also appear to agree that they would like to continue making progress with 30(b)(6) depositions and other eDiscovery issues before Judge Nolan retires in a few months, rather than begin a third day of expert hearings regarding technology related issues. This appears to be good news for the Judge and the parties since the eDiscovery issues now seem to be headed in the right direction as a result of mutual cooperation between the parties and some nudging by Judge Nolan.

There is also good news for outside observers in that Judge Nolan has provided some sage guidance to help future litigants before she steps down from the bench. For example, it is clear that Judge Nolan and other judges continue to emphasize the importance of cooperation in today’s complex new world of technology. Parties should be prepared to cooperate and be more transparent during discovery given the judiciary’s increased reliance on the Sedona Cooperation Proclamation. Second, Kleen Products illustrates that keyword search is not dead. Instead, keyword search should be viewed as one of many tools in the Litigator’s Toolbelt™ that can be used with other tools such as email threading, advanced filtering technology, and even predictive coding tools.  Finally, litigators should take note that regardless of the tools they select, they must be prepared to defend their process and use of those tools or risk the scrutiny of judges and opposing parties.

Look Before You Leap! Avoiding Pitfalls When Moving eDiscovery to the Cloud

Monday, May 7th, 2012

It’s no surprise that the eDiscovery frenzy gripping the American legal system over the past decade has become increasingly expensive.  Particularly costly to organizations is the process of preserving and collecting documents, a fact repeatedly emphasized by the Advisory Committee in its report regarding the 2006 amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP).  These aspects of discovery are often lengthy and can be disruptive to business operations.  Just as troubling, they increase the duration and expense of litigation.

Because these costs and delays affect the courts as well as clients, it comes as no surprise that judges have now heightened their expectation for how organizations store, manage and discover their electronically stored information (ESI).  Gone are the days when enterprises could plead ignorance for not preserving or producing their data in an efficient, cost effective and defensible manner.  Organizations must now follow best practices – both during and before litigation – if they are to safely navigate the stormy seas of eDiscovery.

The importance of deploying such practices applies acutely to those organizations that are exploring “cloud”-based alternatives to traditional methods for preserving and producing electronic information.  Under the right circumstances, the cloud may represent a fantastic opportunity to streamline the eDiscovery process for an organization.  Yet it could also turn into a dangerous liaison if the cloud offering is not properly scrutinized for basic eDiscovery functionality.  Indeed, the City of Los Angeles’s recent decision to partially disengage from its cloud service provider exemplifies this admonition to “look before you leap” to the cloud.  Thus, before selecting a cloud provider for eDiscovery, organizations should be particularly careful to ensure that a provider has the ability both to efficiently retrieve data from the cloud and to issue litigation hold notices.

Effective Data Retrieval Requires Efficient Data Storage

The hype surrounding the cloud has generally focused on the opportunity for cheap and unlimited storage of information.  Storage, however, is only one of many factors to consider in selecting a cloud-based eDiscovery solution.  To be able to meet the heightened expectations of courts and regulatory bodies, organizations must have the actual – not theoretical – ability to retrieve their data in real time.  Otherwise, they may not be able to satisfy eDiscovery requests from courts or regulatory bodies, let alone the day-to-day demands of their operations.

A key step to retrieving company data in a timely manner is to first confirm whether the cloud offering can intelligently organize that information such that organizations can quickly respond to discovery requests and other legal demands.  This includes the capacity to implement and observe company retention protocols.  Just like traditional data archiving software, the cloud must enable automated retention rules and thus limit the retention of information to a designated time period.  This will enable data to be expired once it reaches the end of that period.

The pool of data can be further decreased through single instance storage.  This deduplication technology eliminates redundant data by preserving only a master copy of each document placed into the cloud.  This will reduce the amount of data that needs to be identified, preserved, collected and reviewed as part of any discovery process.  For while unlimited data storage may seem ideal now, reviewing unlimited amounts of data will quickly become a logistical and costly nightmare.

Any viable cloud offering should also have the ability to suspend automated document retention/deletion rules to ensure the adequate preservation of relevant information.  This goes beyond placing a hold on archival data in the cloud.  It requires that an organization have the ability to identify the data sources in the cloud that may contain relevant information and then modify aspects of its retention policies to ensure that cloud-stored data is retained for eDiscovery.  Taking this step will enable an organization to create a defensible document retention strategy and be protected from court sanctions under the Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 37(e) “safe harbor.”  The decision from Viramontes v. U.S. Bancorp (N.D. Ill. Jan. 27, 2011) is particularly instructive on this issue.

In Viramontes, the defendant bank defeated a sanctions motion because it timely modified aspects of its email retention policy.  The bank implemented a policy that kept emails for 90 days, after which the emails were deleted.  That policy was promptly suspended, however, once litigation was reasonably foreseeable.  Because the bank followed that procedure in good faith, it was protected from sanctions under Rule 37(e).

As the Viramontes case shows, an organization can be prepared for eDiscovery disputes by appropriately suspending aspects of its document retention policies.  By creating and then faithfully observing a policy that requires retention policies be suspended on the occurrence of litigation or other triggering event, an organization can develop a defensible retention procedure. Having such eDiscovery functionality in a cloud provider will likely facilitate an organization’s eDiscovery process and better insulate it from litigation disasters.

The Ability to Issue Litigation Hold Notices

To be effective for eDiscovery purposes, a cloud service provider must also enable an organization to deploy a litigation hold to prevent users from destroying data. Unless the cloud has litigation hold technology, the entire discovery process may very well collapse.  For electronic data to be produced in litigation, it must first be preserved.  And it cannot be preserved if the key players or data source custodians are unaware that such information must be retained.  Indeed, employees and data sources may discard and overwrite electronically stored information if they are oblivious to a preservation duty.

A cloud service provider should therefore enable automated legal hold acknowledgements.  Such technology will allow custodians to be promptly and properly notified of litigation and thereby retain information that might otherwise have been discarded.  Inadequate litigation hold technology leaves organizations vulnerable to data loss and court punishment.

Conclusion

Confirming that a cloud offering can quickly retrieve and efficiently store enterprise data while effectively deploying litigation hold notices will likely address the basic concerns regarding its eDiscovery functionality. Yet these features alone will not make that solution the model of eDiscovery cloud providers. Advanced search capabilities should also be included to reduce the amount of data that must be analyzed and reviewed downstream. In addition, the cloud ought to support load files in compatible formats for export to third party review software. The cloud should additionally provide an organization with a clear audit trail establishing that neither its documents, nor their metadata were modified when transmitted to the cloud.  Without this assurance, an organization may not be able to comply with key regulations or establish the authenticity of its data in court. Finally, ensure that these provisions are memorialized in the service level agreement governing the relationship between the organization and the cloud provider.

First State Court Issues Order Approving the Use of Predictive Coding

Thursday, April 26th, 2012

On Monday, Virginia Circuit Court Judge James H. Chamblin issued what appears to be the first state court Order approving the use of predictive coding technology for eDiscovery. Tuesday, Law Technology News reported that Judge Chamblin issued the two-page Order in Global Aerospace Inc., et al, v. Landow Aviation, L.P. dba Dulles Jet Center, et al, over Plaintiffs’ objection that traditional manual review would yield more accurate results. The case stems from the collapse of three hangars at the Dulles Jet Center (“DJC”) that occurred during a major snow storm on February 6, 2010. The Order was issued at Defendants’ request after opposing counsel objected to their proposed use of predictive coding technology to “retrieve potentially relevant documents from a massive collection of electronically stored information.”

In Defendants’ Memorandum in Support of their motion, they argue that a first pass manual review of approximately two million documents would cost two million dollars and only locate about sixty percent of all potentially responsive documents. They go on to state that keyword searching might be more cost-effective “but likely would retrieve only twenty percent of the potentially relevant documents.” On the other hand, they claim predictive coding “is capable of locating upwards of seventy-five percent of the potentially relevant documents and can be effectively implemented at a fraction of the cost and in a fraction of the time of linear review and keyword searching.”

In their Opposition Brief, Plaintiffs argue that Defendants should produce “all responsive documents located upon a reasonable inquiry,” and “not just the 75%, or less, that the ‘predictive coding’ computer program might select.” They also characterize Defendants’ request to use predictive coding technology instead of manual review as a “radical departure from the standard practice of human review” and point out that Defendants cite no case in which a court compelled a party to accept a document production selected by a “’predictive coding’ computer program.”

Considering predictive coding technology is new to eDiscovery and first generation tools can be difficult to use, it is not surprising that both parties appear to frame some of their arguments curiously. For example, Plaintiffs either mischaracterize or misunderstand Defendants’ proposed workflow given their statement that Defendants want a “computer program to make the selections for them” instead of having “human beings look at and select documents.” Importantly, predictive coding tools require human input for a computer program to “predict” document relevance. Additionally, the proposed approach includes an additional human review step prior to production that involves evaluating the computer’s predictions.

On the other hand, some of Defendants’ arguments also seem to stray a bit off course. For example, Defendants’ seem to unduly minimize the value of using other tools in the litigator’s tool belt like keyword search or topic grouping to cull data prior to using potentially more expensive predictive coding technology. To broadly state that keyword searching “likely would retrieve only twenty percent of the potentially relevant documents” seems to ignore two facts. First, keyword search for eDiscovery is not dead. To the contrary, keyword searches can be an effective tool for broadly culling data prior to manual review and for conducting early case assessments. Second, the success of keyword searches and other litigation tools depends as much on the end user as the technology. In other words, the carpenter is just as important as the hammer.

The Order issued by Judge Chamblin, the current Chief Judge for the 20th Judicial Circuit of Virginia, states that “Defendants shall be allowed to proceed with the use of predictive coding for purposes of the processing and production of electronically stored information.”  In a hand written notation, the Order further provides that the processing and production is to be completed within 120 days, with “processing” to be completed within 60 days and “production to follow as soon as practicable and in no more than 60 days.” The order does not mention whether or not the parties are required to agree upon a mutually agreeable protocol; an issue that has plagued the court and the parties in the ongoing Da Silva Moore, et. al. v. Publicis Groupe, et. al. for months.

Global Aerospace is the third known predictive coding case on record, but appears to present yet another set of unique legal and factual issues. In Da Silva Moore, Judge Andrew Peck of the Southern District of New York rang in the New Year by issuing the first known court order endorsing the use of predictive coding technology.  In that case, the parties agreed to the use of predictive coding technology, but continue to fight like cats and dogs to establish a mutually agreeable protocol.

Similarly, in the 7th Federal Circuit, Judge Nan Nolan is tackling the issue of predictive coding technology in Kleen Products, LLC, et. al. v. Packaging Corporation of America, et. al. In Kleen, Plaintiffs basically ask that Judge Nolan order Defendants to redo their production even though Defendants have spent thousands of hours reviewing documents, have already produced over a million documents, and their review is over 99 percent complete. The parties have already presented witness testimony in support of their respective positions over the course of two full days and more testimony may be required before Judge Nolan issues a ruling.

What is interesting about Global Aerospace is that Defendants proactively sought court approval to use predictive coding technology over Plaintiffs’ objections. This scenario is different than Da Silva Moore because the parties in Global Aerospace have not agreed to the use of predictive coding technology. Similarly, it appears that Defendants have not already significantly completed document review and production as they had in Kleen Products. Instead, the Global Aerospace Defendants appear to have sought protection from the court before moving full steam ahead with predictive coding technology and they have received the court’s blessing over Plaintiffs’ objection.

A key issue that the Order does not address is whether or not the parties will be required to decide on a mutually agreeable protocol before proceeding with the use of predictive coding technology. As stated earlier, the inability to define a mutually agreeable protocol is a key issue that has plagued the court and the parties for months in Da Silva Moore, et. al. v. Publicis Groupe, et. al. Similarly, in Kleen, the court was faced with issues related to the protocol for using technology tools. Both cases highlight the fact that regardless of which eDiscovery technology tools are selected from the litigator’s tool belt, the tools must be used properly in order for discovery to be fair.

Judge Chamblin left the barn door wide open for Plaintiffs to lodge future objections, perhaps setting the stage for yet another heated predictive coding battle. Importantly, the Judge issued the Order “without prejudice to a receiving party” and notes that parties can object to the “completeness or the contents of the production or the ongoing use of predictive coding technology.”  Given the ongoing challenges in Da Silva Moore and Kleen, don’t be surprised if the parties in Global Aerospace Inc. face some of the same process-based challenges as their predecessors. Hopefully some of the early challenges related to the use of first generation predictive coding tools can be overcome as case law continues to develop and as next generation predictive coding tools become easier to use. Stay tuned as the facts, testimony, and arguments related to Da Silva Moore, Kleen Products, and Global Aerospace Inc. cases continue to evolve.

Big Data Decisions Ahead: Government-Sponsored Town Hall Meeting for eDiscovery Industry Coincides With Federal Agency Deadline

Wednesday, February 29th, 2012

Update For Report Submission By Agencies

We are fast approaching the March 27, 2012 deadline for federal agencies to submit their reports to the Office of Management and Budget and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) to comply with the Presidential Mandate on records management. We are only at the inception, as we look to a very exciting public town hall meeting in Washington, D.C. – also scheduled for March 27, 2012. This meeting is primarily focused on gathering input from the public sector community, the vendor/IT community, and members of the public at large. Ultimately, NARA will issue a directive that will outline a centralized approach for the federal government for managing records and eDiscovery.

Agencies have been tight lipped about how far along they are in the process of evaluating their workflows and tools for managing their information (both electronic and paper). There is, however, some empirical data from an InformationWeek Survey conducted last year that takes the temperature on where the top IT professionals within the government have their sights set, and the Presidential Mandate should bring some of these concerns to the forefront of the reports. For example, the #1 business driver for migrating to the cloud – cited by 62% of respondents – was cost, while 77% of respondents said their biggest concern was security. Nonetheless, 46% were still highly likely to migrate to a private cloud.

Additionally, as part of the Federal Data Center Consolidation Initiative, agencies are looking to eliminate 800 data centers. While the cost savings are clear, from an information governance viewpoint, it’s hard not to ask what the government plans to do with all of those records?  Clearly, this shift, should it happen, will force the government into a more service-based management approach, as opposed to the traditional asset-based management approach. Some agencies have already migrated to the cloud. This is squarely in line with the Opex over Capex approach emerging for efficiency and cost savings.

Political Climate Unknown

Another major concern that will affect any decisions or policy implementation within the government is, not surprisingly, politics. Luckily, regardless of political party affiliation, it seems to be broadly agreed that the combination of IT spend in Washington, D.C. and the government’s slow move to properly manage electronic records is a problem. Two of the many examples of the problem are manifested in the inability to issue effective litigation holds or respond to Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests in a timely and complete manner. Even still, the political agenda of the Republican party may affect the prioritization of the Democratic President’s mandate and efforts could be derailed with a potential change in administration.

Given the election year and the heavy analysis required to produce the report, there is a sentiment in Washington that all of this work may be for naught if the appropriate resources cannot be secured then allocated to effectuate the recommendations. The reality is that data is growing at an unprecedented rate, and the need for the intelligent management of information is no longer deniable. The long term effects of putting this overhaul on the back burner could be disastrous. The government needs a modular plan and a solid budget to address the problem now, as they are already behind.

VanRoekel’s Information Governance

One issue that will likely not be agreed upon between Democrats and Republicans to accomplish the mandate is the almighty budget, and the technology the government must purchase in order to accomplish the necessary technological changes are going to cost a pretty penny.  Steven VanRoekel, the Federal CIO, stated upon the release of the FY 2013 $78.8 billion dollar IT budget:

“We are also making cyber security a cross-agency, cross-government priority goal this year. We have done a good job in ramping up on cyber capabilities agency-by-agency, and as we come together around this goal, we will hold the whole of government accountable for cyber capabilities and examine threats in a holistic way.”

His quote indicates the priority from the top down of evaluating IT holistically, which dovetails nicely with the presidential mandate since security and records management are only two parts of the entire information governance picture. Each agency still has their own work cut out for them across the EDRM. One of the most pressing issues in the upcoming reports will be what each agency decides to bring in-house or to continue outsourcing. This decision will in part depend on whether the inefficiencies identified lead agencies to conclude that they can perform those functions for less money and more efficiently than their contractors.  In evaluating their present capabilities, each agency will need to look at what workflows and technologies they currently have deployed across divisions, what they presently outsource,  and what the marketplace potentially offers them today to address their challenges.

The reason this question is central is because it begs an all-important question about information governance itself.  Information governance inherently implies that an organization or government control most or all aspects of the EDRM model in order to derive the benefits of security, storage, records management and eDiscovery capabilities. Presently, the government is outsourcing many of their litigation services to third party companies that have essentially become de facto government agencies.  This is partly due to scalability issues, and partly because the resources and technologies that are deployed in-house within these agencies are inadequate to properly execute a robust information governance plan.

Conclusion

The ideal scenario for each government agency to comply with the mandate would be that they deploy automated classification for their records management, archiving with expiration appropriately implemented for more than just email, and finally, some level of eDiscovery capability in order to conduct early case assessment and easily produce data for FOIA.  The level of early case assessment needed by each agency will vary, but the general idea would be that before contacting a third party to conduct data collection, the scope of an investigation or matter would be able to be determined in-house.  All things considered, the question remains if the Obama administration will foot this bill or if we will have to wait for a bigger price tag later down the road.  Either way, the government will have to come up to speed and make these changes eventually and the town hall meeting should be an accurate thermometer on where the government stands.

Survey Says… Information Governance and Predictive Coding Adoption Slow, But Likely to Gain Steam as Technology Improves

Wednesday, February 15th, 2012

The biggest legal technology event of the year, otherwise known as LegalTech New York, always seems to have a few common rallying cries and this year was no different.  In addition to cloud computing and social media, predictive coding and information governance were hot topics of discussion that dominated banter among vendors, speakers, and customers.  Symantec conducted a survey on the exhibit show floor to find out what attendees really thought about these two burgeoning areas and to explore what the future might hold.

Information Governance is critical, understood, and necessary – but it is not yet being adequately addressed.

Although 84% of respondents are familiar with the term information governance and 73% believe that an integrated information governance strategy is critical to reducing information risk and cost, only 19% have implemented an information governance solution.  These results beg the question, if information governance is critical, then why aren’t more organizations adopting information governance practices?

Perhaps the answer lies in the cross-functional nature of information governance and confusion about who is responsible for the organization’s information governance strategy.  For example, the survey also revealed that information governance is a concept that incorporates multiple functions across the organization, including email/records retention, data storage, data security and privacy, compliance, and eDiscovery.  Given the broad impact of information governance across the organization, it is no surprise  respondents also indicated that multiple departments within the organization – including Legal, IT, Compliance, and Records Management – have an ownership stake.

These results tend to suggest at least two things.  First, information governance is a concept that touches multiple parts of the organization.  Defining and implementing appropriate information governance policies across the organization should include an integrated strategy that involves key stakeholders within the organization.  Second, recognition that information governance is a common goal across the entire organization highlights the fact that technology must evolve to help address information governance challenges.

The days of relying too heavily on disconnected point solutions to address eDiscovery, storage, data security, and record retention concerns are limited as organizations continue to mandate internal cost cutting and data security measures.  Decreasing the number of point solutions an organization supports and improving integration between the remaining solutions is a key component of a good information governance strategy because it has the effect of driving down technology and labor costs.   Similarly, an integrated solution strategy helps streamline the backup, retrieval, and overall management of critical data, which simultaneously increases worker productivity and reduces organizational risk in areas such as eDiscovery and data loss prevention.

The trail that leads from point solutions to an integrated solution strategy is already being blazed in the eDiscovery space and this trend serves as a good information governance roadmap.  More and more enterprises faced with investigations and litigation avoid the cost and time of deploying point solutions to address legal hold, data collection, data processing, and document review in favor of a single, integrated, enterprise eDiscovery platform.  The resulting reduction in cost and risk is significant and is fueling support for even broader information governance initiatives in other areas.  These broader initiatives will still include integrated eDiscovery solutions, but the initiatives will continue to expand the integrated solution approach into other areas such as storage management, record retention, and data security technologies to name a few.

Despite mainstream familiarity, predictive coding technology has not yet seen mainstream adoption but the future looks promising.

Much like the term information governance, most respondents were familiar with predictive coding technology for electronic discovery, but the survey results indicated that adoption of the technology to date has been weak.  Specifically, the survey revealed that while 97% of respondents are familiar with the term predictive coding, only 12% have adopted predictive coding technology.  Another 19% are “currently adopting” or plan to adopt predictive coding technology, but the timeline for adoption is unclear.

When asked what challenges “held back” respondents from adopting predictive coding technology, most cited accuracy, cost, and defensibility as their primary concerns.  Concerns about “privilege/confidentiality” and difficulty understanding the technology were also cited as reasons impeding adoption.  Significantly, 70% of respondents believe that predictive coding technology would “go mainstream” if it was easier to use, more transparent, and less expensive. These findings are consistent with the observations articulated in my recent blog (2012:  Year of the Dragon and Predictive Coding – Will the eDiscovery Landscape Be Forever Changed?)

The survey results combined with the potential cost savings associated with predictive coding technology suggest that the movement toward predictive coding technology is gaining steam.  Lawyers are typically reluctant to embrace new technology that is not intuitive because it is difficult to defend a process that is difficult to understand.  The complexity and confusion surrounding today’s predictive coding technology was highlighted recently in Da Silva Moore v. Publicis Group, et. al. during a recent status conference.  The case is venued in Southern District of New York Federal Court before Judge Andrew Peck and serves as further evidence that predictive coding technology is gaining steam.  Expect future proceedings in the Da Silva Moore case to further validate these survey results by revealing both the promise and complexity of current predictive coding technologies.  Similarly, expect next generation predictive coding technology to address current complexities by becoming easier to use, more transparent, and less expensive.

Losing Weight, Developing an Information Governance Plan, and Other New Year’s Resolutions

Tuesday, January 17th, 2012

It’s already a few weeks into the new year and it’s easy to spot the big lines at the gym, folks working on fad diets and many swearing off any number of vices.  Sadly perhaps, most popular resolutions don’t even really change year after year.  In the corporate world, though, it’s not good enough to simply recycle resolutions every year since there’s a lot more at stake, often with employee’s bonuses and jobs hanging in the balance.

It’s not too late to make information governance part of the corporate 2012 resolution list.  The reason is pretty simple – most companies need to get out of the reactive firefighting of eDiscovery given the risks of sloppy work, inadvertent productions and looming sanctions.  Yet, so many are caught up in the fog of eDiscovery war that they’ve failed to see the nexus between the upstream, proactive good data management hygiene and the downstream eDiscovery chaos.

In many cases the root cause is the disconnect between differing functional groups (Legal, IT, Information Security, Records Management, etc.).  This is where the emerging umbrella concept of Information Governance comes to play, serving as a way to tackle these information risks along a unified front. Gartner defines information governanceas the:

“specification of decision rights, and an accountability framework to encourage desirable behavior in the valuation, creation, storage, use, archiving and deletion of information, … [including] the processes, roles, standards, and metrics that ensure the effective and efficient use of information to enable an organization to achieve its goals.”

Perhaps more simply put, what were once a number of distinct disciplines—records management, data privacy, information security and eDiscovery—are rapidly coming together in ways that are important to those concerned with mitigating and managing information risk. This new information governance landscape is comprised of a number of formerly discrete categories:

  • Regulatory Risks – Whether an organization is in a heavily regulated vertical or not, there are a host of regulations that an organization must navigate to successfully stay in compliance.  In the United States these include a range of disparate regimes, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, HIPPA, the Securities and Exchange Act, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and other specialized regulations – any number of which require information to be kept in a prescribed fashion, for specified periods of time.  Failure to turn over information when requested by regulators can have dramatic financial consequences, as well as negative impacts to an organization’s reputation.
  • Discovery Risks – Under the discovery realm there are any number of potential risks as a company moves along the EDRM spectrum (i.e., Identification, Preservation, Collection, Processing, Analysis, Review and Production), but the most lethal risk is typically associated with spoliation sanctions that arise from the failure to adequately preserve electronically stored information (ESI).  There have been literally hundreds of cases where both plaintiffs and defendants have been caught in the judicial crosshairs, resulting in penalties ranging from outright case dismissal to monetary sanctions in the millions of dollars, simply for failing to preserve data properly.  It is in this discovery arena that the failure to dispose of corporate information, where possible, rears its ugly head since the eDiscovery burden is commensurate with the amount of data that needs to be preserved, processed and reviewed.  Some statistics show that it can cost as much as $5 per document just to have an attorney privilege review performed.  And, with every gigabyte containing upwards of 75,000 pages, it is easy to see massive discovery liability when an organization has terabytes and even petabytes of extraneous data lying around.
  • Privacy Risks – Even though the US has a relatively lax information privacy climate there are any number of laws that require companies to notify customers if their personally identifiable information (PII) such as credit card, social security, or credit numbers have been compromised.  For example, California’s data breach notification law (SB1386) mandates that all subject companies must provide notification if there is a security breach to the electronic database containing PII of any California resident.  It is easy to see how unmanaged PII can increase corporate risk, especially as data moves beyond US borders to the international stage where privacy regimes are much more staunch.
  • Information Security Risks Data breaches have become so commonplace that the loss/theft of intellectual property has become an issue for every company, small and large, both domestically and internationally.  The cost to businesses of unintentionally exposing corporate information climbed 7 percent last year to over $7 million per incident.  Recently senators asked the SEC to “issue guidance regarding disclosure of information security risk, including material network breaches” since “securities law obligates the disclosure of any material network breach, including breaches involving sensitive corporate information that could be used by an adversary to gain competitive advantage in the marketplace, affect corporate earnings, and potentially reduce market share.”  The senators cited a 2009 survey that concluded that 38% of Fortune 500 companies made a “significant oversight” by not mentioning data security exposures in their public filings.

Information governance as an umbrella concept helps organizations to create better alignment between functional groups as they attempt to solve these complex and interrelated data risk challenges.  This coordination is even more critical given the way that corporate data is proliferating and migrating beyond the firewall.  With even more data located in the cloud and on mobile devices a key mandate is managing data in all types of form factors. A great first step is to determine ownership of a consolidated information governance approach where the owner can:

  • Get C-Level buy-in
  • Have the organizational savvy to obtain budget
  • Be able to define “reasonable” information governance efforts, which requires both legal and IT input
  • Have strong leadership and consensus building skills, because all stakeholders need to be on the same page
  • Understand the nuances of their business, since an overly rigid process will cause employees to work around the policies and procedures

Next, tap into and then leverage IT or information security budgets for archiving, compliance and storage.  In most progressive organizations there are likely ongoing projects that can be successfully massaged into a larger information governance play.  A great place to focus on initially is information archiving, since this one of the simplest steps an organization can take to improve their information governance hygiene.  With an archive organizations can systematically index, classify and retain information and thus establish a proactive approach to data management.  It’s this ability to apply retention and (most importantly) expiration policies that allows organizations to start reducing the upstream data deluge that will inevitably impact downstream eDiscovery processes.

Once an archive is in place, the next logical step is to couple a scalable, reactive eDiscovery process with the upstream data sources, which will axiomatically include email, but increasingly should encompass cloud content, social media, unstructured data, etc.  It is important to make sure  that a given  archive has been tested to ensure compatibility with the chosen eDiscovery application to guarantee that it can collect content at scale in the same manner used to collect from other data sources.  Overlaying both of these foundational pieces should be the ability to place content on legal hold, whether that content exists in the archive or not.

As we enter 2012, there is no doubt that information governance should be an element in building an enterprise’s information architecture.  And, different from fleeting weight loss resolutions, savvy organizations should vow to get ahead of the burgeoning categories of information risk by fully embracing their commitment to integrated information governance.  And yet, this resolution doesn’t need to encompass every possible element of information governance.  Instead, it’s best to put foundational pieces into place and then build the rest of the infrastructure in methodical and modular fashion.

Lessons Learned for 2012: Spotlighting the Top eDiscovery Cases from 2011

Tuesday, January 3rd, 2012

The New Year has now dawned and with it, the certainty that 2012 will bring new developments to the world of eDiscovery.  Last month, we spotlighted some eDiscovery trends for 2012 that we feel certain will occur in the near term.  To understand how these trends will play out, it is instructive to review some of the top eDiscovery cases from 2011.  These decisions provide a roadmap of best practices that the courts promulgated last year.  They also spotlight the expectations that courts will likely have for organizations in 2012 and beyond.

Issuing a Timely and Comprehensive Litigation Hold

Case: E.I. du Pont de Nemours v. Kolon Industries (E.D. Va. July 21, 2011)

Summary: The court issued a stiff rebuke against defendant Kolon Industries for failing to issue a timely and proper litigation hold.  That rebuke came in the form of an instruction to the jury that Kolon executives and employees destroyed key evidence after the company’s preservation duty was triggered.  The jury responded by returning a stunning $919 million verdict for DuPont.

The spoliation at issue occurred when several Kolon executives and employees deleted thousands emails and other records relevant to DuPont’s trade secret claims.  The court laid the blame for this destruction on the company’s attorneys and executives, reasoning they could have prevented the spoliation through an effective litigation hold process.  At issue were three hold notices circulated to the key players and data sources.  The notices were all deficient in some manner.  They were either too limited in their distribution, ineffective since they were prepared in English for Korean-speaking employees, or too late to prevent or otherwise ameliorate the spoliation.

The Lessons for 2012: The DuPont case underscores the importance of issuing a timely and comprehensive litigation hold notice.  As DuPont teaches, organizations should identify what key players and data sources may have relevant information.  A comprehensive notice should then be prepared to communicate the precise hold instructions in an intelligible fashion.  Finally, the hold should be circulated immediately to prevent data loss.

Organizations should also consider deploying the latest technologies to help effectuate this process.  This includes an eDiscovery platform that enables automated legal hold acknowledgements.  Such technology will allow custodians to be promptly and properly apprised of litigation and thereby retain information that might otherwise have been discarded.

Another Must-Read Case: Haraburda v. Arcelor Mittal U.S.A., Inc. (D. Ind. June 28, 2011)

Suspending Document Retention Policies

Case: Viramontes v. U.S. Bancorp (N.D. Ill. Jan. 27, 2011)

Summary: The defendant bank defeated a sanctions motion because it modified aspects of its email retention policy once it was aware litigation was reasonably foreseeable.  The bank implemented a retention policy that kept emails for 90 days, after which the emails were overwritten and destroyed.  The bank also promulgated a course of action whereby the retention policy would be promptly suspended on the occurrence of litigation or other triggering event.  This way, the bank could establish the reasonableness of its policy in litigation.  Because the bank followed that procedure in good faith, it was protected from court sanctions under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 37(e) “safe harbor.”

The Lesson for 2012: As Viramontes shows, an organization can be prepared for eDiscovery disputes by timely suspending aspects of its document retention policies.  By modifying retention policies when so required, an organization can develop a defensible retention procedure and be protected from court sanctions under Rule 37(e).

Coupling those procedures with archiving software will only enhance an organization’s eDiscovery preparations.  Effective archiving software will have a litigation hold mechanism, which enables an organization to suspend automated retention rules.  This will better ensure that data subject to a preservation duty is actually retained.

Another Must-Read Case: Micron Technology, Inc. v. Rambus Inc., 645 F.3d 1311 (Fed. Cir. 2011)

Managing the Document Collection Process

Case: Northington v. H & M International (N.D.Ill. Jan. 12, 2011)

Summary: The court issued an adverse inference jury instruction against a company that destroyed relevant emails and other data.  The spoliation occurred in large part because legal and IT were not involved in the collection process.  For example, counsel was not actively engaged in the critical steps of preservation, identification or collection of electronically stored information (ESI).  Nor was IT brought into the picture until 15 months after the preservation duty was triggered. By that time, rank and file employees – some of whom were accused by the plaintiff of harassment – stepped into this vacuum and conducted the collection process without meaningful oversight.  Predictably, key documents were never found and the court had little choice but to promise to inform the jury that the company destroyed evidence.

The Lesson for 2012: An organization does not have to suffer the same fate as the company in the Northington case.  It can take charge of its data during litigation through cooperative governance between legal and IT.  After issuing a timely and effective litigation hold, legal should typically involve IT in the collection process.  Legal should rely on IT to help identify all data sources – servers, systems and custodians – that likely contain relevant information.  IT will also be instrumental in preserving and collecting that data for subsequent review and analysis by legal.  By working together in a top-down fashion, organizations can better ensure that their eDiscovery process is defensible and not fatally flawed.

Another Must-Read Case: Green v. Blitz U.S.A., Inc. (E.D. Tex. Mar. 1, 2011)

Using Proportionality to Dictate the Scope of Permissible Discovery

Case: DCG Systems v. Checkpoint Technologies (N.D. Ca. Nov. 2, 2011)

The court adopted the new Model Order on E-Discovery in Patent Cases recently promulgated by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.  The model order incorporates principles of proportionality to reduce the production of email in patent litigation.  In adopting the order, the court explained that email productions should be scaled back since email is infrequently introduced as evidence at trial.  As a result, email production requests will be restricted to five search terms and may only span a defined set of five custodians.  Furthermore, email discovery in DCG Systems will wait until after the parties complete discovery on the “core documentation” concerning the patent, the accused product and prior art.

The Lesson for 2012: Courts seem to be slowly moving toward a system that incorporates proportionality as the touchstone for eDiscovery.  This is occurring beyond the field of patent litigation, as evidenced by other recent cases.  Even the State of Utah has gotten in on the act, revising its version of Rule 26 to require that all discovery meet the standards of proportionality.  While there are undoubtedly deviations from this trend (e.g., Pippins v. KPMG (S.D.N.Y. Oct. 7, 2011)), the clear lesson is that discovery should comply with the cost cutting mandate of Federal Rule 1.

Another Must-Read Case: Omni Laboratories Inc. v. Eden Energy Ltd [2011] EWHC 2169 (TCC) (29 July 2011)

Leveraging eDiscovery Technologies for Search and Review

Case: Oracle America v. Google (N.D. Ca. Oct. 20, 2011)

The court ordered Google to produce an email that it previously withheld on attorney client privilege grounds.  While the email’s focus on business negotiations vitiated Google’s claim of privilege, that claim was also undermined by Google’s production of eight earlier drafts of the email.  The drafts were produced because they did not contain addressees or the heading “attorney client privilege,” which the sender later inserted into the final email draft.  Because those details were absent from the earlier drafts, Google’s “electronic scanning mechanisms did not catch those drafts before production.”

The Lesson for 2012: Organizations need to leverage next generation, robust technology to support the document production process in discovery.  Tools such as email analytical software, which can isolate drafts and offer to remove them from production, are needed to address complex production issues.  Other technological capabilities, such as Near Duplicate Identification, can also help identify draft materials and marry them up with finals that have been marked as privileged.  Last but not least, technology assisted review has the potential of enabling one lawyer to efficiently complete the work that previously took thousands of hours.  Finding the budget and doing the research to obtain the right tools for the enterprise should be a priority for organizations in 2012.

Another Must-Read Case: J-M Manufacturing v. McDermott, Will & Emery (CA Super. Jun. 2, 2011)

Conclusion

There were any number of other significant cases from 2011 that could have made this list.  We invite you to share your favorites in the comments section or contact us directly with your feedback.

For more on the cases discussed above, watch this video:

Fulbright’s 2011 Litigation Trends Report Predicts a Constant Litigation Pace and a Swell of Regulatory Investigations

Monday, November 7th, 2011

Fulbright & Jaworski has conducted their Litigation Trends survey for nearly the past decade and the results are always interesting since they tend to capture the mindset of inside counsel and litigators as they anticipate the upcoming year.  In their 8th Annual Litigation Trends Survey, Fulbright noted that 92% of U.S. respondents predict that litigation will either increase or stay the same in the upcoming year.  This trend bodes well for players in the litigation services and eDiscovery sectors, and confirms the counter cyclical nature of the industry.  Breaking down the perceived increases across industry verticals, the Survey noted that the biggest anticipated jumps were in the technology, financial services, healthcare and insurance sectors.  Meanwhile energy (the leading sector from the prior year) was one of the few that predicted a decrease.

Going behind the scenes, there were a number of factors that caused respondents to predict litigation increases.  First and foremost, respondents indicated that “stricter regulation was the number one reason” for the increases, particularly with insurance, financial services, health care and retail sectors.  These concerns around regulatory compliance have been increasingly keeping GCs and corporate boards awake as the governance climate continues to heat up.  This regulation driver showed a demonstrable increase with 46% of all respondents having retained outside counsel to assist with regulatory proceedings, up from 37% in the prior year.  The Survey noted that U.S. companies facing a regulatory investigation were most likely to be under pressure from the DOJ (27%), State Attorney General (24%), OSHA (18%), the EPA (16%) and U.S. Attorney (13%).  Also on the regulatory front, U.S. respondents have increasingly begun to recognize the potential jurisdictional reach of the U.K. Bribery Act, with 25% of U.S. companies stating that they have already conducted a review of existing procedures in preparation for implementation.

In addition to managing risk, most in-house counsel are keenly concerned with controlling litigation costs.  The good news here is that associated costs are predicted to be generally flat.  Yet, eDiscovery remained the largest category targeted for increased spending, with 18% of respondents making this their top priority.  Interestingly, though, large enterprises seem to have been doing a good job of getting eDiscovery expenses under control (likely by taking expensive elements of the EDRM in-house), with these expenses declining among the largest companies, from 42% last year to 24% this year.

The Survey noted that the use of cloud computing has gained speed, with 34% of all public companies using the cloud.  And yet, only 40% of those companies using cloud computing have had “to preserve and/or collect data from the cloud in connection with actual or threatened litigation, disputes or investigations.”  This number appears curiously light, and it should definitely rise during the upcoming year as the plaintiff’s bar gets more savvy about this relatively new source of responsive electronically stored information (ESI).

On the narrower eDiscovery front, the Survey honed in on newer issues like cooperation.  Here, the Survey noted that this Sedona-sponsored concept still hasn’t completely taken hold, with nearly 40% of all respondents claiming that “their company has not made the effort to be more transparent or cooperative” due to a litigation strategy of “defending on all fronts.”  This area appears particularly muddled, with one third saying their previous attempts haven’t been reciprocated and another quarter feeling that their company was already transparent.

All in all,  the 2011 Fulbright Litigation Trends Survey notes trends that appear to be largely in line with the primary drivers of (1) managing risk and (2) lowering litigation costs.  On the risk side, compliance with an increasingly complex regulatory environment is offsetting any potential lull in the litigation environment.  And, on the cost side, eDiscovery continues to be a hot button issue, particularly with the relatively new challenges associated with ESI distributed on social media, cloud computing and mobile sources.

E-Discovery MythBusters: Debunking Common Myths About ECA

Tuesday, August 25th, 2009

We’ve devoted a number of posts to the topic of ECA, ranging from a quest to define the acronym, all the way to the cost savings benefits of the ECA approach.  And, while there seems to be relative unanimity around the beneficial aspects of ECA, there still seem to be a number of myths and misconceptions.  So, ala the Mythbusters, we’ll run these myths through the gauntlet to see which survive scrutiny.

Myth #1: ECA Is Only Valuable if Performed “Early”

Certainly, ECA is best leveraged and will be most valuable when performed at the outset of litigation.  As has been stated before, it has value on two primary fronts, the first being the ability to scope electronic discovery (both in terms of cost and timelines).  The next is the more traditional value proposition where ECA is used to get an understanding of the case facts to enable the strategic decision making process.

As such, there are scenarios where an ECA methodology would still generate value even if performed “later” in the mater.  For instance, with bifurcated, class action litigation initial discovery about the class may occur months before discovery on the merits.  In this instance using a later ECA approach would still make sense since discovery about the case facts may not have been possible earlier on.  Similarly, “late” ECA may still hold value when new parties or claims are added to an existing lawsuit, or when there’s a substantial change in case direction, data, or custodians.

Myth #2: ECA Is Only Performed With Technology

Sure, enterprise grade ECA products  are an important part of the mix, but the products won’t perform an ECA by themselves.  There’s just too much subjective decision making involved in the assessment process.   Therefore, the right people are critically important — not only in terms of experience performing this analytical work, but also in their ability to capably testify about the underlying decision making process.  It’s also important to be able to follow a repeatable and defensible processes to show that the “recipe” used was aligned with industry best practices and wasn’t ginned up for a particular engagement.

Myth #3: ECA Only Works With Large ESI Volumes

Yes, ECA methodologies makes a lot of sense for large, bet-the-company matters because even modest savings when processing, analyzing and reviewing terabytes will easily approach six to seven figures.  However, smaller matters will still benefit from better budgetary insights that facilitate informed matter management.  And, in a way there’s almost more benefit from being able to quickly evaluate (fight/settle) smaller suits since the transactional costs are so high relative to the amount in controversy.  In both scenarios it’s important to view objective case data to prepare for meet & confer conferences.

Myth #4: Clients Don’t Want To Pay for ECAs

Many end clients (corporate counsel typically) have a similar litigation mindset:  i.e., the desire to avoid costs for as long as possible.  While avoiding early costs makes some sense on its face, the fact is that spending a small amount of money early on (for budgetary and case assessment purposes) will in most instances reduce the overall litigation budget.  It’s the classic, “you can pay me now, or pay me later” situation.

Counsel must understand that while some costs are incurred early in the process the benefits are crystal clear: i.e., determining customized case strategies early in the matter to decide whether to fight or settle.  Similarly, corporate clients must recognize that the benefits outweigh the costs and require their litigation counsel to include this process in every significant matter.

This illustration highlights how an initial ECA investment actually pays for itself over the life of the litigation.


Myth #5: ECAs Begin when the Complaint is Filed

Many newbie ECA practitioners may think that the timing for an ECA approach would start when the complaint is filed.  And, while this isn’t patently ridiculous, I think the better approach is to begin the clock at the time litigation becomes “reasonably likely” — versus later dates such as when the complaint is filed or when discovery is propounded.  This trigger is also the same for trigger preservation obligations and a host of interrelated activities such as ESI “identification,” which makes the matter kick-off more synchronized.

For more information about ECA, watch a recording of our recent webinar — E-Discovery MythBusters: Debunking Common Myths About Early Case Assessment.

FCPA in the News: Corruption At Home and Abroad

Friday, July 31st, 2009

It’s not just in New Jersey that corruption is in the news. It feels like everywhere you go, the authorities are investigating white collar crime and thus have an increasing need for electronic discovery technology.

Earlier this month, as those of you who follow my Twitter feed will know, I was visiting customers and partners in Germany. In virtually every meeting, data privacy and corruption investigations were top of mind, and with good reason. Following the Siemens case last year, German investigators have become much more active and it was easy for my hosts to list example after example of recent cases. There was the Deutsche Bahn case of management spying on its own employees, in violation of German privacy laws; the Deutsche Bank case of management spying on its own board; and, the Deutsche Telecom case of management phone tapping employees to find leaks. There were stories of price collusion among cable car companies in the Alps, and corruption investigations into the activities of German companies in Eastern Europe.

A similar focus on anti-corruption exists closer to home. I have written before about the increase in FCPA investigations and that’s been reflected in recent headlines. As the Wall Street Journal reports, Sun and Shell have recently come under the microscope, according to their public filings. And Frederic Bourke, a founder of the accessories firm Dooney & Bourke, was recently found guilty of conspiracy to violate the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which may result in jail time.

All indications are that the U.S. Department of Justice and its counterparts overseas are just warming up. It’s not a good time for white collar crime, wherever you are in the world.